The uterus is a hollow, odd, median organ, shaped like an inverted pear, flattened anteriorly, emerging from the center of the perineum into the pelvic cavity.

The uterus is situated between the urinary bladder, which is forwards, and the rectum, which is behind.

In the middle part, the uterus presents a choke called Isthmus of the uterus.

The upper part of the isthmus is called Uterus body and the lower one constitutes the cervix (lap).

Body and Cervix

The upper end of the body of the uterus, that is, the part above the implantation of the fallopian tubes, is called Uterus Background.


The cervix of the uterus is subdivided into two portions by a transverse plane passing through its middle portion, which are the supravaginal and vaginal portions.

This transverse plane is represented by the insertion of the vagina fornix around the middle part of the cervix.

Thus, the supravaginal portion of the cervix is within the peritoneal cavity and is enveloped by the peritoneum, forming a common upward block with the isthmus, body and bottom of the uterus, while the vaginal portion of the cervix representing a rounded down cylindrical segment. , which protrudes inside the vagina, occupying the center of its fornix.

In the center of the lower end of the vaginal portion of the cervix of the uterus, there is a hole called the uterus ostium.

Flattening anteroposteriorly, the uterus has an anterior face that is called the bladder face and another posterior face which is the intestinal face.

The bladder face is flatter and the intestinal face is more convex.

The lateral joints of the two faces constitute the edges of the uterus.

At the upper end of each edge a corresponding fallopian tube is implanted.

Between one tube and the other is the bottom of the uterus, whose upper margin is called the upper border.

The uterus being a hollow organ, has a cavity that is triangular from the upper base, at body level, and fusiform within the cervix, receiving the latter portion of the cervix canal.

At the upper angles of the uterine cavity are the uterine ostia of the corresponding fallopian tubes.

The uterus ostium, located in the vaginal portion of the cervix, establishes communication between the interior of the uterus and the interior of the vagina.

The walls of the uterus are constituted by concentric layers, which from the periphery to the depth, are the serous or perimeter tunics, subserous mesh, muscle or myometrium and mucous or endometrium.

The Perimeter is represented by the visceral peritoneum that covers both the visceral and intestinal part of the organ at the level of the lateral edges of the organ, the two leaflets expand laterally to constitute the Large Ligaments of the Uterus.

The subserous mesh is represented by a thin layer of connective tissue that intersects between the serous tunic and the muscular tunic.

The myometrium It is formed by a thick layer of smooth muscle fibers that are distributed from the periphery to the depth in 3 planes: longitudinal, plexiform and circular.

The Endometrium It covers the entire uterine cavity.

At the level of the body of the uterus, the mucosa is smooth, whereas the cervix is very pleated, whose folds resemble palm leaves and are therefore called flattened folds.

The endometrium plays a very important role during pregnancy.

Uterus Wall Layers

The uterus is held in position by three ligaments: broad ligamentum of the uterus, round ligamentum of the uterus and uterosacral ligament.

Large Uterus Ligament

Uterus Positions:

 Usually the uterus presents in anteversoflexion; therefore, in anteversion and anteflexion.

Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.


Structures of
Female Genital System
Uterine Tubes
External Organs