The ovary is a paired organ comparable to an almond approximately 3 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1.5 cm thick.
It is situated behind the broad ligament of the uterus and just below the fallopian tube, with its great axis parallel to it.
Because the distal 1/3 of the fallopian tube normally faces downward, the ovary assumes a vertical position, with one end directed upward and the other downward.
Compared to the almond one edge would be anterior and the other posterior, conditions it so that one face is lateral and the other medial.
The medial border is attached to an expansion of the broad ligament of the uterus, which is called the mesovarium, and therefore is called the mesovarian border, while the posterior border is known as the free border.
The mesovarian border represents the Hilum of the Ovary, it is through which the ovarian vessels enter and exit.
The lower end is called the tubal end and the upper end is called the uterine end.
The ovary is attached to the uterus and pelvic cavity by ligaments, the whole of which may be roughly compared to the cables of aerial trams, the tram being the ovary; the segment of the cord that connects to the pelvic wall is called the suspensory ligament of the ovary and the portion of the cord that leads to the uterus is the ligament of the ovary.
The Suspensor Ligament of the Ovary extends from the fascia of the psoas major muscle to the tubal end of the ovary, while the Ligament Proper of the Ovary runs from its uterine end to the lateral border of the uterus, just below the implantation at the base of the fallopian tube.
It is along the suspensory ligament of the ovary that the ovarian artery and vein supply this organ.
At puberty, the ovaries begin to secrete the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. Mature follicle cells secrete estrogen, while the corpus luteum produces large amounts of progesterone and little estrogen. These hormones transform the “girl” into a “woman”.
| INTERNAL STRUCTURES OF THE OVARIES|
|Source: NETTER, Frank H.. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2nd edition Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.|