The femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body. The femur consists of a diaphysis and two epiphyses. It articulates proximally with the hip bone and distally with the patella and tibia.

Proximal Epiphysis

  • Femur Head – is smooth and rounded
  • Femoral Head Fovea – located on the femoral head
  • Anatomical Neck – connects the head with the body
  • Greater Trochanter – Large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence located on the upper border of the femur
  • Lesser Trochanter – located posteriorly at the base of the cervix. It is a conical eminence that can vary in size.
  • Intertrochanteric Line – runs from the greater trochanter to the lesser trochanter on the anterior surface
  • Intertrochanteric Crest – A prominent ridge located on the posterior surface, running in an oblique curve from the top of the greater to the lesser trochanter.

Distal Epiphysis

  • Patellar Face – articulates with the patella
  • Medial Condyle – articulates with the tibia medially
  • Lateral Condyle – articulates with the tibia laterally
  • Intercondylar fossa – located between the condyles
  • Medial Epicondyle – rough prominence located medial to the medial condyle
  • Lateral Epicondyle – rough prominence located lateral to the lateral condyle


  • Linea aspera – located on the posterior surface of the femur.

Distally, the linea aspera bifurcates bordering the popliteal surface and proximally trifurcates into:

  • Gluteal Line
  • Pectineal Line
  • spiral line

The Femur articulates with three bones: the Iliac, Patella and Tibia.

femur joints

 Fêmur - Vista Anterior
Source: NETTER, Frank H.. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2nd edition Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
 Fêmur - Vista Posterior
Source: NETTER, Frank H.. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2nd edition Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

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