General features


They are found in almost all vertebrae (except the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae) and serve as a means of differentiating them from the other bones of the skeleton.

All vertebrae have 7 Basic Elements:

1. Body: It is most of the vertebra. It is single and medium and facing forward. It is represented by a cylinder segment, with an upper and lower face.
Function: Support.

2. Spiny Process: It is the part of the bony arch that lies medially and posteriorly.
Function: Movement.

3. Transverse Process: There are 2 lateral extensions, right and left, that project transversely on each side of the point of union of the pedicle with the blade.
Function: Movement.

4. Articular Processes: There are four, two superior and two inferior. These protrusions are designed to articulate the vertebrae with each other.
Function: Obstruction.

5. Blades: There are two blades, one right and one left, which connect the spinous process to the transverse process.
Function: Protection.

6. PediclesThey are narrower parts that connect the transverse process to the vertebral body.
Function: Protection.

7. Vertebral foramen: Located posterior to the body and limited laterally and posteriorly by the bony arch.
Function: Protection

 General Characteristics Vertebrae
Source: SOBOTTA, Johannes. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 21st. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2000.


Regional Features Individual Features