Digestive system

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive tract and the attached organs constitute the digestive system. The digestive tract is a hollow tube that extends from the oral cavity to the anus and is also called the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract. Digestive tract structures include: Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Straight and Anus.

The length of the gastrointestinal tract, measured on the corpse, is about 9 m. In the living person it is smaller because the muscles along the walls of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract maintain tone.
The accessory digestive organs are Teeth, Tongue, Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder and Pancreas. The teeth assist in the physical disruption of the food and the tongue assists in chewing and swallowing. The other accessory digestive organs never come into direct contact with food. They produce or store secretions that pass into the gastrointestinal tract and assist in the chemical decomposition of food.
The gastrointestinal tract is a long, winding tube 10 to 12 meters long from the cephalic end (oral cavity) to the caudal (anus).

FUNCTIONS:

1- It is intended for the use by the body of foreign substances called food, which ensure the maintenance of their vital processes.
2- Mechanical and chemical transformation of ingested food macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.) into molecules of adequate size and shape to be absorbed by the intestine.
Transport of digestive food, water and mineral salts from the intestinal light to the blood capillaries of the intestinal mucosa.
4- Elimination of undigested and unabsorbed food waste along with flaky cell debris from the gastrointestinal tract and substances secreted in the intestinal lumen.
Digestive Tract l                     

Chew: Partial disintegration of food, mechanical and chemical process.

Swallowing: Conduction of food through the pharynx into the esophagus.

Ingestion: Introduction of food in the stomach.

Digestion: Unfolding food into simpler molecules.

Absorption: Process performed by the intestines.

Defecation: Elimination of undigested substances from the gastrointestinal tract.

The gastrointestinal tract has several segments that are successively:  Mouth, pharyngeal, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, straight and anus.

Attached Organs:

 PARTITED GLANDS

 SUBMANDIBULAR GLANDS

 SUBLINGUAL GLANDS

 LIVER

 PANCREAS

Digestive Tract

MOUTH

The mouth also referred to as Oral or Oral Cavity It is formed by the cheeks (they form the lateral walls of the face and are made externally by the skin and internally by the mucosa), the hard (upper wall) and soft (posterior wall) palates and the tongue (important for the transport of food, taste sense). and talk). The soft palate extends posteriorly into the buccal cavity like the uvula, which is a V-shaped structure that is suspended in the upper and posterior region of the buccal cavity.

Oral Cavity LimitsOral Cavity Limits

BUCCAL CAVITY
BUCCAL CAVITY
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
HARD PALATE AND PALATE MOLE
 HARD PALATE AND PALATE MOLE
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
PALATE MOLE
 PALATE MOLE
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

The mouth cavity is where food is eaten and prepared for digestion in the stomach and small intestine. The food is chewed by the teeth, and saliva from the salivary glands facilitates the formation of a controllable food bolus. Swallowing is initiated voluntarily in the mouth cavity. The voluntary phase of the process pushes the bolus from the mouth cavity to the pharynx - the expanded part of the digestive tract - where the automatic swallowing phase occurs.

The mouth cavity consists of two parts: the lobby of the mouth and the proper cavity of the mouth. The foyer of the mouth It is the gap-like space between the teeth and gum and the lips and cheeks. The proper cavity of the mouth It is the space between the upper and lower dental arches. It is limited laterally and anteriorly by the maxillary and mandibular alveolar arches that house the teeth. The roof of the mouth cavity is formed by the palate. Subsequently, the mouth cavity communicates with the oral part of the pharynx. When the mouth is closed and at rest, the mouth cavity is completely occupied by the tongue.Mouth

Teeth

Teeth are hard, conical structures attached to the jaw and maxillary alveoli that are used for chewing and speech assistance.
Children have 20 primary teeth (primary or milk). Adults usually have 32 secondary teeth. By the time the child is 2 years old, it will probably already have a full set of 20 milk teeth. When a young adult is between the ages of 17 and 24, a complete set of 32 permanent teeth is usually present in his mouth.

PRIMARY AND PERMANENT TEETH
PRIMARY AND PERMANENT TEETH
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
PERMANENT TEETH
PERMANENT TEETH
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Language

The tongue is the main organ of the sense of taste and an important organ of speech, besides assisting in the chewing and swallowing of food. It is located on the floor of the mouth, within the curve of the body of the jaw.

The root is the posterior part, where it connects to the hyoid bone by the hyoglossal and genioglossus muscles and the glossioid membrane; to the epiglottis by three folds of the mucosa; to the soft palate by the palate-glossos arches and the pharynx by the upper pharyngeal constrictor muscles and mucosa.
Language

The apex is the somewhat rounded anterior end that rests against the lingual face of the lower incisor teeth.

Language Parts

The inferior face has a mucosa between the floor of the mouth and the tongue in the midline that forms a clear vertical fold, the frenulum of the tongue.

On the back of the tongue is a median groove that divides the tongue into symmetrical halves. In the anterior 2/3 of the back of the tongue we find the lingual papillae. Already in the 1/3 posterior we find numerous mucous glands and lymphatic follicles (lingual tonsil).

Lingual Papillae & #8211; they are projections of the chorion, abundantly distributed in the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, giving this region a characteristic roughness. The types of papillae are: ditched, fungiform, filiform, and simple papillae.

LANGUAGE PAPERS
 LANGUAGE PAPERS
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
LANGUAGE PAPERS
 LANGUAGE PAPERS
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Tongue Muscles & #8211; The tongue is divided into halves by a median fibrous septum that extends its entire length and attaches inferiorly to the hyoid bone. In each half there are two sets of muscles, extrinsic and intrinsic.

The Extrinsic Muscles are: Genioglossus, Hioglossus, Condroglossus, Stiloglossus and Palatoglossus.

The Intrinsic Muscles are: Upper Longitudinal, Lower Longitudinal, Transverse and Vertical.

LANGUAGE MUSCLES
LANGUAGE MUSCLES
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

PHARYNX

The pharynx is a tube that extends from the mouth to the esophagus.

The pharynx has its walls very thick due to the volume of the muscles that cover it externally, inside, the organ is lined by the pharyngeal mucosa, a smooth epithelium, which facilitates the rapid passage of food.

The movement of food from the mouth to the stomach is accomplished by the act of swallowing. Swallowing is facilitated by saliva and mucus and involves the mouth, pharynx and esophagus.

Three stages:

 Voluntary: in which the food bolus is passed to the oral part of the pharynx.

 Pharyngeal: Involuntary passage of the food bolus through the pharynx to the esophagus.

 EsophagealInvoluntary passage of the food bolus through the esophagus to the stomach.

Pharynx Limits:

 Superior & #8211; sphenoid body and basilar portion of occipital bone

 Lower & #8211; esophagus

 Later & #8211; spine and fascia of the long neck and long head muscles

 Previous & #8211; Pterygoid process, jaw, tongue, hyoid bone, and thyroid and cricoid cartilages

 Lateral & #8211; styloid process and your muscles

The pharynx can be further divided into three parts: nasal (Nasopharynx), oral (Oropharynx) and laryngeal (Laryngopharynx).

Part Nasal & #8211; It lies posterior to the nose and above the soft palate and differs from the other two parts in that its cavity always remains open. It communicates anteriorly with the nasal cavities through the choanae. On the posterior wall is the pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid in children).

Oral part & #8211; It extends from the soft palate to the hyoid bone. In its lateral wall is the palatine tonsil.

Laryngeal Part & #8211; extends from the hyoid bone to the cricoid cartilage. On either side of the laryngeal orifice is a recess called the piriform sinus.

THESwallowing pharynx communicates with the nasal, respiratory and digestive pathways. The act of swallowing usually directs food from the throat to the esophagus, a long tube that empties into the stomach. During swallowing, food cannot normally enter the nasal and respiratory pathways due to temporary closure of the openings of these pathways. Thus during swallowing, the soft palate moves toward the opening of the nasal part of the pharynx; The opening of the larynx is closed when the trachea moves upward and allows a tissue fold called the epiglottis to cover the airway.

Laryngeal movement also simultaneously pulls the vocal cords and increasing the opening between the laryngeal part of the pharynx and the esophagus. The bolus passes through the laryngeal part of the pharynx and enters the esophagus in 1-2 seconds.

Swallowing

FARMING PARTS AND STRUCTURE
 FARMING PARTS AND STRUCTURE
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

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ESOPHAGUS

The esophagus is a fibro-musculoskeletal tube that extends between the pharynx and the stomach. It is located posterior to the trachea beginning at the height of the 7th cervical vertebra. It pierces the diaphragm through the opening called the esophageal hiatus and ends at the upper stomach. Measures about 25 inches in length.

ESOPHAGE PARTS AND STRUCTURE
 ESOPHAGE PARTS AND STRUCTURE
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

The presence of food within the esophagus stimulates peristaltic activity, and causes the food to move to the stomach.

Contractions are repeated in waves that push food toward the stomach. The passage of solid or semi-solid food from the mouth to the stomach takes 4 & #8211; 8 seconds; Very soft and liquid foods spend about 1 second.

Occasionally, reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus causes heartburn (or heartburn). The burning sensation is a result of the high acidity of the stomach contents.

Gastresophageal reflux occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (located in the upper esophagus) does not close properly after food has entered the stomach, the contents may flow back to the lower esophagus.

The esophagus is made up of three parts:

 Cervical portion: portion that is in close contact with the trachea.

 Thoracic PortionIt is the most important portion, passing behind the left bronchus (upper mediastinum, between the trachea and the spine).

 Abdominal portion: rests on the diaphragm and presses the liver, forming in it the esophageal impression.

PARTS OF THE ESOPHAGE
 PARTS OF THE ESOPHAGE
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

 

STOMACH

The stomach is situated in the abdomen, just below the diaphragm, anteriorly to the pancreas, superior to the duodenum and to the left of the liver. It is partially covered by the ribs. The stomach is located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen (see abdominal quadrants in the main menu), between the liver and the spleen.

The stomach is the most enlarged segment of the digestive tract, because food remains in it for some time and needs to be a reservoir between the esophagus and the small intestine.

The shape and position of the stomach varies greatly from person to person; the diaphragm pushes it down with each inhalation and pulls it up with each exhalation and therefore cannot be described as typical.

The stomach is divided into 4 main areas (regions): Cardia, Background, Body and Pylorus.

STOMACH PARTS AND STRUCTURE
 STOMACH PARTS AND STRUCTURE
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

The bottom, which despite its name, is high above the point where the esophagus meets the stomach.

The body represents about 2/3 of the total volume.

To prevent backflow of food into the esophagus, there is a valve (stomach inlet port & #8211; cardial ostium or lower esophageal port), Cardia, located just above the smallest curvature of the stomach. It is named after being close to the heart.

To prevent the bolus from getting to the small intestine prematurely, the stomach is endowed with a powerful muscle valve, a sphincter called Pylorus (exit port of stomach & #8211; pyloric ostium).
Shortly before the pyloric valve we find a portion called the anthropiloric.

The stomach also has two parts: the larger curvature (left margin of the stomach) and the Minor Bend (right margin of the stomach).STOMACH PARTS

STOMACH PARTS
 STOMACH PARTS
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Digestive Functions of the Stomach:

 Food digestion

 Gastric juice secretion, which includes digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid as the most important substances.

 Gastric hormone secretion and intrinsic factor.

 Regulation of the pattern in which food is partially digested and delivered to the small intestine.

 Absorption of small amounts of water and dissolved substances.

SMALL INTESTINE

The major part of the digestion takes place in the small intestine, which extends from the pylorus to the ileocolic (ileocecal) junction, which meets the large intestine. The small intestine is an indispensable organ. The major events of digestion and absorption occur in the small intestine, so its structure is specially adapted for this function. Its extension provides large surface area for digestion and absorption, and is further increased by circular folds, villi and microvilli.

The small intestine taken in one is about 7 meters long and can range from 5 to 8 meters (the length of small and large intestine together after death is 9 meters).

The small intestine, which consists of Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum, extends from the pylorus to the ileocecal junction where the ileum joins the caecum, the first part of the large intestine.

Duodenum: is the first portion of the small intestine. It is named after its length approximately equal to the width of twelve fingers (25 centimeters). It is the only portion of the small intestine that is fixed. It has no mesentery.

It has 4 Parts:
1) Top or 1st portion & #8211; originates in the pylorus and extends to the neck of the gallbladder.

2) Descending Part or 2nd Part & #8211; is de-peritonized and we find the arrival of two ducts:

 Bile Duct & #8211; come from the gallbladder and the liver (bile)

 Pancreatic Duct & #8211; come from the pancreas (pancreatic juice or secretion)

Parts of the Duodenos

Choledochal Duct and Adjacent Structures
Choledochal Duct and Adjacent Structures
Choledochal Duct and Adjacent Structures
 Choledochal Duct and Adjacent Structures
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

3) Horizontal Part or 3rd Part

4) Ascending Part or 4th Part

Jejunum: It is the part of the small intestine that continues the duodenum. It gets its name because whenever it is opened it is empty. It is wider (about 4 centimeters), its wall is thicker, more vascular and stronger in color than the ileum.

Ileum: It is the last segment of the small intestine that continues the jejunum. It is named after its relation to the iliac bone. It is narrower and its tunics are thinner and less vascularized than the jejunum. Distally, the ileum flows into the large intestine into a hole called the ileocecal ostium.

Together, the jejunum and ileum are 6 to 7 meters long. Most of the jejunum is in the upper left quadrant, while most of the ileum is in the lower right quadrant. The jejunum and ileum, unlike the duodenum, are movable.

SMALL INTESTINE
SMALL INTESTINE
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

LARGE INTESTINE

The large intestine can be compared to a horseshoe, open down, measuring about 6.5 centimeters in diameter and 1.5 meters in length. It extends from the ileum to the anus and is attached to the posterior wall of the abdomen by the mesecolum.

The large intestine absorbs water so quickly that in about 14 hours the food material takes on the typical fecal bolt consistency.

The large intestine has some differences from the small intestine: caliber, tapeworms, bushes and epiploic appendages.

The large intestine is larger than the small intestine, so it is called the large intestine. The caliber gradually tapers as it reaches the anal canal.

The tapeworms of the colon (longitudinal tapes) are three bands approximately 1 centimeter wide that run through the large intestine. They are most evident in the cecum and the ascending colon.

The colon bushes (saculations) are ampullary bulges separated by transverse grooves.

Epiploic appendages are small yellowish pendants made of fat-rich connective tissue. They appear mainly in the sigmoid colon.

The large intestine is divided into 4 main parts: Caecum (cecun), Colum (colon) (Ascending, Transverse, Descending and Sigmoid), Straight and Anus.

Large Intestine Parts

The first is the cecum, larger segment that communicates with the ileum. To prevent reflux of material from the small intestine, there is a valve located at the junction of the ileum with the cecum & #8211; Ileocecal valve (ileocolic). At the bottom of the caecum we find the Vermiform Appendix.

Ileocecal valve

Vermiform appendix

The next portion of the large intestine is the Chello, segment that extends from the cecum to the anus.

Ascending lap & #8211; Cross Neck & #8211; Descending lap & #8211; Sigmoid lap

PARTS AND STRUCTURE OF THE GREAT GUT
 PARTS AND STRUCTURE OF THE GREAT GUT
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Ascending lap - is the second part of the large intestine. It passes up the right side of the abdomen from the cecum to the right lobe of the liver, where it bends to the left at the right flexion of the neck (hepatic flexure).

Cross Neck - is the widest and most mobile part of the large intestine. It crosses the abdomen from the right flexion of the neck to the left flexure of the neck, where it bends inferiorly to become a descending neck. Left neck flexion (splenic flexion), usually higher, sharper and less mobile than right neck flexion.

Descending lap - passes retroperitoneally from the left flexion of the neck to the left iliac fossa, where it is continuous with the sigmoid neck.

Lap Sigmoid - is characterized by its S-shaped handle of varying length. The sigmoid neck joins the descending neck to the rectum. The termination of the neck tapeworms, approximately 15 cm from the anus, indicates the recto-sigmoid junction.

PARTS AND STRUCTURE OF THE GREAT GUT

 Liver Flexure & #8211; between the ascending colon and the transverse colon.

 Splenic Flexure & #8211; between the transverse colon and the descending colon.

Liver and Splenic Flexures

Large Intestine Divisions
 Large Intestine Divisions
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

The rectum gets its name from being almost rectilinear. This segment of the large intestine ends by puncturing the pelvic diaphragm (levator ani muscles) and is called the anal canal.

The anal canal, although very short (3 centimeters long) is important because it presents some essential formations for intestinal functioning, of which we mention the anal sphincters.

The internal anal sphincter is the deepest, and results from a thickening of circular smooth muscle fibers, and is therefore involuntary. The external anal sphincter consists of striated muscle fibers that are circularly arranged around the internal anal sphincter, which is voluntary. Both sphincters must relax before defecation can occur.

ANAL CHANNEL AND ANAL SFFINCTER
 ANAL CHANNEL AND ANAL SFFINCTER
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Large Intestine Functions:

 Absorption of water and certain electrolytes;

 Synthesis of certain vitamins by intestinal bacteria;

 Temporary storage of waste (faeces);

 Elimination of body waste (defecation).

Peristalsis:

Intermittent, well-spaced peristaltic waves move the fecal material from the caecum into the ascending, transverse, and descending neck. As it moves through the lap, water is continually reabsorbed from the faeces, through the intestinal walls, into the capillaries. Faeces that stay in the large intestine for a longer period lose excess water, developing the so-called constipation. In contrast, rapid bowel movements do not allow enough time for water to reabsorb, causing diarrhea.

 

PERITONEUM

The peritoneum is the longest serous membrane in the body. The part that covers the abdominal wall is called Parietal Peritoneum and what is reflected on the viscera constitutes the Visceral Peritoneum. The space between the parietal and visceral leaflets of the peritoneum is called the peritoneal cavity.

Certain abdominal viscera are completely enclosed by peritoneum and suspended on the wall by a thin thin layer of serous-lined connective tissue containing the blood vessels. These folds are given the general name of mesentery.

The Mysteries are: the mesentery itself, the transverse mesocolon and the sigmoid mesocolon. In addition to these, sometimes an ascending and a descending mesocolon are present.

Properly Said Mesentery - originates from the ventral structures of the spine and keeps the small intestine suspended.

The Transverse Mesocolon - Attaches the transverse colon to the posterior wall of the abdomen.

The Sigmoid Mesocolon - maintains the sigmoid colon in connection with the pelvic wall.

The Ascending and Descending Mesocolon They connect the ascending to descending colon to the posterior wall of the abdomen.

The Peritoneum has two oments: the largest and the smallest.

THE Greater Oment It is a slender apron that hangs over the transverse colon and the small bowel loops. It is inserted along the greater curvature of the stomach and the first portion of the duodenum.

THE Minor Oment It extends from the smallest curvature of the stomach and the initial portion of the duodenum to the liver.

Epiploic Appendices They are small fat-filled peritoneum sacs located along the colon and upper rectum.

PERITON STRUCTURES
PERITON STRUCTURES
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
BIGGER
BIGGER
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

ANNEX BODIES

The digestive tract is considered as a tube, receiving the fluid secreted by several glands, most of them located in its walls such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines.

Some glands constitute well individualized formations, located near the tube, as they communicate through ducts, which serve to flow their elaboration products.

The salivary glands are divided into 2 major groups: Smaller Salivary Glands and Larger Salivary Glands. Saliva is a viscous, clear, tasteless, odorless liquid that is produced by these glands and the mucous glands in the mouth cavity.

Minor Salivary Glands: These are small corpuscles or nodules spread around the walls of the mouth, such as the labial glands, lingual and molar palates.

Smaller Salivary Glands
 Smaller Salivary Glands
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Larger Salivary Glands: are represented by 3 pairs which are parotid, submandibular and sublingual.

Parotid Gland & #8211; the largest of the three is located on the side of the face, below and in front of the ear flag. Irrigated by branches of the external carotid artery. Innervated by the auriculotemporal, glossopharyngeal and facial nerve.

PAROTIDE DUCTS
 PAROTIDE DUCTS
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Submandibular Gland & #8211; It is rounded and lies in the submandibular triangle. It is irrigated by branches of the facial and lingual artery. The secretory nerves derive from cranial parasympathetic facial fibers; the sympathetic fibers come from the upper cervical ganglion.

Sublingual Gland & #8211; It is the smallest of the three and is located below the mucosa of the floor of the mouth. It is irrigated by the sublingual and submental arteries. The nerves derive identically to those of the submandibular gland.

Larger Salivary Glands
Larger Salivary Glands
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

LIVER

The liver is the largest gland in the body, and is also the largest abdominal viscera.

Its location is in the upper abdomen, just below the diaphragm, being to the right, that is, usually 2/3 of its volume are to the right of the midline and 1/3 to the left. It weighs about 1,500 g and accounts for approximately 1/40 of the adult body weight.

The liver has two faces: Diaphragmatic and Visceral.

The liver is divided into wolves. The Diagrammatic Face has a right lobe and a left lobe, the right being at least twice as large as the left. The division of wolves is established by the Sickle Ligament. At the end of this ligament we find a fibrous cord resulting from the obliteration of the umbilical vein known as Round Liver Ligament.

LIVER & #8211; DIAPHRAGMATIC FACE
LIVER - DIAPHRAGMATIC FACE
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

THE Visceral Face It is subdivided into 4 lobes (right, left, square and caudate) by the presence of depressions in its central area, which together are formed by forming a β 1, with anteroposterior branches and a transverse joining them. Although the right lobe is considered by many anatomists to include the square lobe (lower) and the caudate lobe (posterior) based on internal morphology, the square and caudate lobes belong more appropriately to the left lobe.

LIVER & #8211; VISUAL FACE
LIVER - VISCERAL FACE
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Between the right lobe and the square we find the gallbladder and between the right lobe and the caudate, there is a groove that houses the inferior vena cava. Between the caudate and square lobes there is a transverse slit: the liver portal (hepatic pedicle) through which the hepatic artery, portal vein, common hepatic duct, nerves and lymphatic vessels pass.

Liver Excretory Apparatus & #8211; It is formed by the hepatic duct, gallbladder, cystic duct and bile duct.

The liver is a vital organ, and the functioning of at least 1/3 of it is essential & #8211; besides the bile that is indispensable in the digestion of fats & #8211; It plays the important role of storing glucose and, to a lesser extent, iron, copper and vitamins.

The Digestive Function of the Liver is to produce bile, a yellowish green discharge, to pass into the duodenum. Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, which releases it when fats enter the duodenum. Bile emulsifies fat and distributes it to the distal part of the intestine for digestion and absorption.

Other Liver Functions are:

Carbohydrate metabolism;

Lipid metabolism;

Protein metabolism;

Drug and hormone processing;

Bilirubin excretion;

Bile salt excretion;

Storage;

Phagocytosis;

Vitamin D activation.

Gallbladder

AVgallbladder (7 - 10 cm long) is located in the gallbladder fossa on the visceral face of the liver. This fossa is located at the junction of the right lobe and the square lobe of the liver. The relationship of the gallbladder to the duodenum is so close that the upper part of the duodenum is usually stained with bile on the corpse. The gallbladder holds up to 50 ml of bile.

The Cystic Duct (4 cm in length) connects the gallbladder to the common Liver Duct (right and left hepatic duct union) forming the Bile Duct. The length varies from 5 to 15 cm. The bile duct descends posteriorly to the upper part of the duodenum and is located on the posterior surface of the pancreas head. On the left side of the descending part of the duodenum, the choledochal duct comes into contact with the main pancreatic duct.

Gallbladder
Gallbladder
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

PANCREAS

The pancreas produces through an exocrine secretion the pancreatic juice that enters the duodenum through the pancreatic ducts, an endocrine secretion produces glucagon and insulin that enter the blood. The pancreas produces daily 1200 - 1500 ml of pancreatic juice.

The pancreas is flattened anteroposteriorly, it has an anterior and a posterior face, with an upper and lower border and its location is posterior to the stomach.

The pancreas has two faces, one to Diaphragmatic Face (anterior superior) that is convex and smooth, relating to the diaphragmatic dome and  Visceral Face (inferior posterus) which is irregularly concave by the presence of visceral impressions.

The length varies from 12.5 to 15 cm and its weight in women is 14.95 g and in men 16.08 g.

The pancreas is divided into Wwelcome (lodges in the curve of the duodenum), Whello, Worpo (divided into three parts: anterior, posterior and inferior) and Wauda.

PARTS OF PANCREAS
PARTS OF PANCREAS
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Pancreatic Duct & #8211; The main pancreatic duct begins at the tail of the pancreas and runs to its head, where it bends inferiorly and is closely related to the bile duct. The pancreatic duct joins the bile duct (liver and gallbladder) and enters the duodenum as a common duct called the hepatopancreatic ampulla.

COLDOCOUS AND PANCREATIC DUCTS
COLDOCOUS AND PANCREATIC DUCTS
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

The pancreas has the following functions:

Dissolve carbohydrate (pancreatic amylase);

Dissolve proteins (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase and elastase);

Dissolve triglycerides in adults (pancreatic lipase);

Dissolve nucleic acid (ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease).

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