Arterial system

ARTERIAL SYSTEM

Set of vessels that leave the heart and branch in succession and are distributed throughout the organism. Out of the heart comes the pulmonary trunk (relates to the small circulation, ie it takes venous blood to the lungs through its branch, two pulmonary arteries one right and one left) and the aorta (carries arterial blood throughout the body through of its ramifications).

Some important arteries of the human body:

1 & #8211; Pulmonary Trunk System: the pulmonary trunk leaves the heart through the right ventricle and  Aorta Artery and Pulmonary Trunkforks in two pulmonary arteries, one right and one left. Each branch from the pulmonary hilum into pulmonary segmental arteries.
Upon entering the lungs, these branches divide and subdivide until they form capillaries around the alveoli in the lungs. Carbon dioxide passes from the blood to the air and is exhaled. Oxygen passes from the air inside the lungs to the blood. This mechanism is called Hematosis.

2 & #8211; Aorta Artery System (oxygenated blood): It is the largest artery in the body, with a diameter of 2 to 3 cm. Its four major divisions are the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, the thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta. The aorta is the main trunk of the systemic arteries. The part of the aorta that emerges from the left ventricle, posterior to the pulmonary trunk, is the ascending aorta.

Portions of the Aorta Artery

The beginning of the aorta contains the aortic semilunar valves.

The aorta artery branches in the ascending portion into two coronary arteries, one right and one left, which will irrigate the heart.

Left and Right Coronary Arteries


The Left Coronary Artery passes between the left auricle and the pulmonary trunk. It is divided into two branches: anterior interventricular branch (left anterior descending branch) and a circumflex branch. The anterior interventricular branch passes along the interventricular sulcus toward the apex of the heart and supplies both ventricles. The circumflex branch follows the coronary sulcus around the left margin to the posterior surface of the heart, thus originating the left marginal artery that supplies the left ventricle.

Left Coronary Artery

The Right Coronary Artery it runs in the coronary or atrioventricular sulcus and gives rise to the right marginal branch that supplies the right margin of the heart as it runs to the apex of the heart. After originating these branches, the coronary sulcus is curved to the left and continuous to the posterior surface of the heart, then emits the great posterior interventricular artery that descends into the posterior interventricular sulcus toward the apex of the heart, supplying both ventricles.

Right Coronary Artery

CORONARY ARTERIES
 CORONARY ARTERIES
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Vertebral ArteriesImmediately after, the aortic artery curves to the left, giving rise to three arteries (arteries of the aortic curve):
1 & #8211; Arterial Brachiocephalic Trunk
2 & #8211; Left Common Carotid Artery
3 & #8211; Left Subclavian Artery

The arterial brachiocephalic trunk originates two arteries:
4 & #8211; Right Common Carotid Artery
5 & #8211; Right Subclavian Artery

 

 

Aorta Curve Portion Branches

NECK AND HEAD ARTERIES

The right and left vertebral arteries and the right and left common carotid arteries are responsible for the arterial vascularization of the neck and head.

Before entering the armpit, the subclavian artery gives a branch to the brain, called the vertebral artery, which passes through the transverse foramina from C6 to C1 and enters the skull through the foramen magnum. The vertebral arteries unite to form the basilar artery (supplies the cerebellum, pons, and inner ear), which will give rise to the posterior cerebral arteries, which supply the lower and posterior surface of the brain.

Common Carotid Artery BranchesAt the upper edge of the larynx, the common carotid arteries divide into external carotid artery and internal carotid artery.
The external carotid artery irrigates the external structures of the skull. The internal carotid artery enters the skull through the carotid canal and supplies its internal structures. The terminal branches of the internal carotid artery are the anterior cerebral artery (supplies most of the medial face of the brain) and middle cerebral artery (supplies most of the lateral face of the brain).

 

Carotid Artery Branches

External carotid artery: irrigates neck and face. Its collateral branches are: superior thyroid artery, lingual artery, facial artery, occipital artery, posterior auricular artery and ascending pharyngeal artery. Its terminal branches are: temporal artery and maxillary artery.

Willis Polygon:

The cerebral vascularization is formed by the right and left vertebral arteries and the right and left internal carotid arteries.

The vertebral anastomoses originate from the basilar artery, housed in the basilar gutter, it divides into two posterior cerebral arteries that supply the posterior inferior aspect of each of the cerebral hemispheres.

The internal carotid arteries on each side originate a middle cerebral artery and an anterior cerebral artery.

The anterior cerebral arteries communicate through a branch between them which is the anterior communicating artery.

The posterior cerebral arteries communicate with the internal carotid arteries through the posterior communicating arteries.

To learn more about Willis Polygon, see Nervous System (Brain Vascularization).

WILLIS POLYGON
WILLIS POLYGON
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
WILLIS POLYGON & #8211; SCHEME
WILLIS POLYGON - SCHEMAv
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

ARTERIES OF THE UPPER MEMBERS

ARTERIES OF THE UPPER MEMBERS

Explanation of the table above: the subclavian artery (right or left), shortly after its onset, originates the vertebral artery that will assist in cerebral vascularization, descending towards the armpit it is called axillary artery, and when it finally reaches the arm , its name changes to brachial artery (humeral). In the elbow region it emits two terminal branches which are the radial and ulnar arteries that will run through the forearm. In the hand these two arteries are anastomosed forming a deep palmar arch that originates the common palmar digital arteries and the palmar metacarpal arteries that will be anastomosed.

 

Aorta Artery Branches Scheme

 

TOP MEMBER ARTERIES
TOP MEMBER ARTERIES
Source: SOBOTTA, Johannes. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 21st. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2000.

Aorta Artery & #8211; Thoracic Portion:

After the aotic curve or arch, the artery begins to descend from the left side of the spine giving rise to the branches:

Visceral (nourish the organs):
1- Pericardials
2- Bronchial
3- Esophageal
4- Mediastinals

Parietals (irrigate the organ wall):
5- Posterior Intercostal
6- Subcostals
7- Upper Phrenics

Aorta Artery & #8211; Abdominal portion:

When crossing the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm to the height of the fourth lumbar vertebra, where it ends, the aorta is represented by the abdominal portion.

In this portion the aorta provides several collateral branches and two terminals.

Scheme of Abdominal Aortic Artery Portion
The terminated branches of the aorta are the right common iliac artery and the left common iliac artery.

ARTERIES OF THE ABDOMINAL PORTION OF THE AORTA
 ARTERIES OF THE ABDOMINAL PORTION OF THE AORTA
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
Celiac Trunk
 Celiac Trunk
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
RAMES OF THE TOP MESENTRIC ARTERY
 RAMES OF THE TOP MESENTRIC ARTERY
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
RAMES OF THE LOWER MESENTERIC ARTERY
 RAMES OF THE LOWER MESENTERIC ARTERY
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
MAIN BULLETS OF MONTHLY ARTERIES
 MAIN BULLETS OF MONTHLY ARTERIES
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

LOWER MEMBERS ARTERIES

LOWER MEMBERS ARTERIES

Arterial System Scheme

 

LOWER MEMBER ARTERIES
 LOWER MEMBER ARTERIES
Source: SOBOTTA, Johannes. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 21st. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2000.

 

Structures of
Cardiovascular system
Blood

Heart

Blood vessels

Venous system