SPINE

Joints of the Vertebral Bodies

The vertebral bodies are joined by the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments and the intervertebral discs.

Anterior Longitudinal Ligament & #8211; long and strong bundle of longitudinal fibers extending along the anterior faces of the vertebrae bodies from the axis (C2) to the sacrum. It continues superiorly with the anterior atlantoaxial ligament.

PREVIOUS LONGITUDINAL CONNECTION
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Longitudinal Ligament Later & #8211; located in the vertebral canal, on the posterior faces of the vertebral bodies from the axis (C2) to the sacrum. It is continued superiorly with the tectoral membrane.

LONGITUDINAL CONNECTION
 Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Intervertebral Disc

They are located between the adjacent faces of vertebral bodies, from the axis (C2) to the sacrum bone. They vary in shape, size and thickness in the path of the spine. Vertebral discs make up about 1/4 of the length of the spine.

Vertebral Disc

Each disc consists of a peripheral fibrous disc composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue called FIBER RING; and a soft elastic inner substance called Pulpous Core. The discs form strong joints, allow various movements of the spine and absorb impacts.

Vertebral Disc

Spinal Articulations

Articular Capsules & #8211; they are thin and loose and inserted into the articular facets of adjacent articular processes.

Yellow Ligaments & #8211; They are ligaments that join the laminae of the adjacent vertebrae in the spinal canal of axis (C2) to the first segment of the sacrum. It has some elasticity that serves to preserve the vertical posture.

YELLOW LINKS
 Yellow Ligament
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Nucal Ligament & #8211; It is a fibrous membrane that extends from the external occipital protuberance to the 7th cervical vertebra (C7).

NUCAL CONNECTION
Nucal Ligament
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Supraspinatus Ligament & #8211; fibrous and resistant cord that joins the apex of the spinous processes from the 7th cervical vertebra (C7) to the sacrum. It is considered a continuation of the nuchal ligament.

Interspinous Ligaments & #8211; thin and almost membranous, they join adjacent spinous processes.

 

Superspinous and interspinous links
Supraspinatus Ligament and Interspinous Ligament
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Intertransversal Ligaments & #8211; are interposed between the transverse processes.

PREVIOUS INTERTRANSVERSAL AND LONGITUDINAL CONNECTIONS
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament and Interspinous Ligament
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Atlanto-Occipital Joints (C0 & #8211; C1)

This joint is formed by the following structures:

Articular Capsules & #8211; they surround the occipital condyles and the articular facets of the atlas lateral masses.

Atlanto-occipital Membrane Previous & #8211; The broad, thickly interwoven fiber joins the anterior margin of the foramen magnum with the upper edge of the anterior atlas arch.

Posterior Atlanto-occipital Membrane & #8211; It is broad and thin and is fixed to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum and to the upper edge of the posterior arch of the atlas.

Atlanto-occipital Ligaments, Lateral & #8211; They are thickened portions of the joint capsules reinforced by bundles of fibrous and obliquely directed superior and medial tissue. They fit into the jugular process of the occipital bone and the base of the transverse process of the atlas.

ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL CONNECTIONS (C0 & #8211; C1)
Atlanto-Ocipital Ligaments
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Occipito-Axial Ligaments (C0 & #8211; C2)

This joint is formed by the following structures:

Tectonic Membrane & #8211; It is an extensive and resilient band that covers the tooth and its ligaments within the spinal canal. The extension of the posterior longitudinal ligament is considered. It is inserted into the body of the axis and superiorly into the occipital basilar sulcus.

Alar Ligaments & #8211; They begin on either side of the apex of the tooth and insert into the rough medial part of the occipital condyles.

Tooth Apical Ligament & #8211; It extends from the apex of the maxillary tooth to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum between the alar ligaments.

OCCIPITO-AXIAL LINKS (C0 & #8211; C2)
Occipito-Axial Ligaments
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Atlanto-Axial Joints (C1 & #8211; C2)

The articulation of the atlas with the axis comprises the following structures:

Articular Capsules & #8211; they are slender and loose and join the margins of the atlas lateral masses to those of the posterior articular face of the axis.

Anterior Atlanto-Axial Ligament & #8211; It is a tough membrane attached to the lower margin of the posterior arch of the atlas and to the ventral face of the axis body.

Posterior Atlantoaxial Ligament & #8211; It is a thin, broad membrane inserted into the lower edge of the posterior arch of the atlas and the upper margin of the axis blades.

Atlas Transverse Ligament & #8211; It is a thick, sturdy, arched band that keeps the tooth in contact with the anterior arch. It fits into the basilar part of the occipital and the posterior aspect of the body of the axis. The transverse ligament of the atlas together with the superior and inferior longitudinal fascicles form the cruciform ligament.

HIGH CERVICAL REGION LINKS
Ligaments of the Upper Cervical Region
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Costovertebral Joints

These joints are divided into two parts:

1 & #8211; Articulation of the rib head with the vertebral body;

2 & #8211; Costotransversic joint, where the rib neck articulates with the transverse process of the thoracic vertebrae.

1 & #8211; Rib Head Joint It is a flat joint formed by the articulation of the rib head with the vertebral body of the thoracic vertebrae. The ligaments of this joint are:

Articular Capsule & #8211; It consists of short, sturdy fibers connecting the rib heads to the articular cavities formed by the vertebrae and intervertebral discs.

Radial Ligament of Rib Head & #8211; joins the anterior parts of the rib heads to the bodies of two vertebrae and their intervertebral discs. It consists of three flat fascicles that insert into the anterior part of the head of the ribs.

Intra-articular Rib Head Ligament & #8211; It is a short, flat beam inserted laterally into the crest between the articular facets and medially into the intervertebral disc, dividing the joint (each with its own synovial membrane).

RADIED CONNECTION
 Radiated Ligament
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

2 & #8211; Costotransversal Articulation & #8211; It is the articulation between the articular facet of the rib tubercle and the corresponding transverse process of the vertebra. It is formed by the following structures:

Articular Capsule & #8211; It is thin and inserted into the articular circumference with a synovial lining.

Superior Costotransverse Ligament & #8211; it fits into the upper edge of the rib neck and the transverse process of the vertebra above.

Posterior Costotransverse Ligament & #8211; They are fibers that insert into the rib neck and at the base of the transverse process and lateral edge of the articular process of the above vertebra.

Rib Neck Ligament & #8211; They are short and resilient fibers that join the back of the rib neck with the adjacent transverse process.

Rib Tuber Ligament & #8211; It is a short, thick and resilient fascicle that runs from the apex of the transverse process to the non-articular portion of the rib tubercle.

COSTOTRANSVERSARY LINKS
Costotransverse Ligaments
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Sternocostal Joints & #8211; the joints of the true rib cartilage with the sternum are flat joints except for the first one which is a synchondrosis. The connecting elements are:

Articular Capsule & #8211; They are very thin fibers that surround the joints of the costal cartilages of the true ribs with the sternum.

Radiant Sternocostal Ligament & #8211; thin, radiating bundles radiating from the anterior and posterior surfaces of the sternal ends of the true rib cartilage.

Intra-articular Sternocostal Ligament & #8211; constant only on the second rib. It extends from the rib cartilage to the fibro cartilage that joins the manubrium to the body of the sternum.

Costoxiphoid Ligament & #8211; connect the anterior and posterior faces of the seventh rib to them in the xiphoid process.

STERNOCOSTAL JOINTS
Sternocostal Joints
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Interchondral Joints & #8211; joints between the costal cartilages.

Costochondral Joints & #8211; joints between the ribs and the costal cartilages.

Sternal Joints:

1 – Manubrium-sternal & #8211; between the manubrium and the body of the sternum is usually a symphysis.

2 – Xifoesternal & #8211; between the xiphoid process and the body of the sternum, it is usually a symphysis.

Lumbosacral Joints

These are the joints between the 5th lumbar vertebra and the sacrum bone. Their bodies are joined by a symphysis, including an intervertebral disc.

Ileolumbar Ligament - inserted into the anteroinferior face of the 5th lumbar vertebra and radiates into the pelvis through two beams: one inferior, the lumbosacral ligament that is inserted into the anterosuperior face of the sacrum and one upper beam, the partial insertion of the square muscle of the loin, passing to the iliac crest anterior to the sacroiliac joint, continuing up with the thoracolumbar fascia.

ILEOLOMBAR CONNECTION
Ileolumbar Ligament
Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

Sacrococcygeal Joint

This is a symphysis between the sacrum apex and the coccyx base, joined by a fibrocartilage disc.

Anterior Sacrococcygeal Ligament & #8211; irregular fibers that descend over the pelvic faces of both the sacrum and coccyx.

Posterior Sacrococcygeal Ligament & #8211; The superficial surface passes from the back of the fifth sacral vertebra to the back of the coccyx.

Lateral Sacrococcygeal Ligament - connects a transverse process of the coccyx to the inferolateral angle of the sacrum bone.

Intercorneal Ligaments - join the horns of the sacrum and coccyx.

SACRO-COCCYGETIC JOINT
Sacrococcygeal joint

 

Source: NETTER, Frank H .. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.

 

SEE MORE

Synovial Joints
ATM
Shoulder
Elbow
Fist
Hip
knee
Ankle