Anatomical Terms

ANATOMIC TERMS

The) Terms of Relationship:

 

* Anterior / Ventral / Frontal: towards the front of the body.

* Posterior / Dorsal: towards the back (rear).

Example: The sternum bone and costal cartilage lie anteriorly to the heart. The great vessels and the spine are posteriorly located in relation to the heart.

* Superior / Cranial: towards the upper body.

* Lower / Flow: towards the lower body.

Example: The great vessels are superior to the heart while the diaphragm is inferior to the heart.

* Medial: Closest to the median sagittal plane (median sagittal line.

* Side: furthest from the median sagittal plane (median sagittal line).

Example: The collateral ligaments of the knee. The fibular collateral ligament is located laterally while the tibial collateral ligament is located medially, that is, closer to the median sagittal line.

* Median: Exactly about the median sagittal axis.

Example: The esophagus and a median organ

* Intermediate: between medial and lateral.

Example: The quadriceps femoral mucus has four portions which are between the medial and lateral (vast)

* Medium: structure or organ between upper and lower or anterior and posterior.

Example: The right lung has three upper inferior lobes and the middle lobe.

B) Terms of Comparison:

* Proximal: near the root of the member. Toward the trunk.

* Distal: away from the root of the limb. Far from the trunk or insertion point.

Example: The arm is considered proximal when compared to the forearm (distal) because it is closer to the root of the limb implant (shoulder girdle).

* Shallow: means closer to the body surface.

* Deep: means further from the body surface.

Example: The skin is a superficial structure compared to the arteries or bones that are located deeper. In the venous system it is common to use these terms to differentiate the superficial venous system (closest to the surface) from the deep venous system (passes more deeply along with the arterial system).

* Homolateral / Ipsilateral: on the same side of the body or other structure.

* Contralateral: on the opposite side of the body or other structure.

Example: If we consider the right hand as a reference, the right lower limb is considered homo / ipsilateral because it is located on the same side. The left lower limb is considered contralateral, as it is located on the opposite side of the reference hand (right hand).

W) Movement Terms:

* Flexion: curvature or decreased angle between bones or body parts.

* Extension: Straighten or increase the angle between bones or body parts.

* Adduction: movement towards the median plane in a coronal plane.
* Abduction: move away from the median plane in the coronal plane.

* Medial Rotation: Brings the anterior face of a limb closer to the median plane.
* Lateral Rotation: takes the anterior face away from the median plane.

* Retrusion: retraction movement (backward) as occurs in mandible and shoulder retrusion.

* Protrusion: forward (forward) movement as occurs in jaw and shoulder protrusion.

* Occlusion: movement in which contact of the upper dental arch with the lower dental arch occurs.

* Opening: movement in which the teeth move apart in the upper-lower direction.

 

* Lower Rotation of the Scapula: movement around a sagittal axis in which the lower angle of the scapula moves medially and the glenoid cavity moves caudally.

* Superior Rotation of the Scapulamovement around a sagittal axis in which the lower angle of the scapula moves laterally and the glenoid cavity moves cranially.

* Elevation: Lift or move a part up, such as raising your shoulders.
* Downgrade: Lower or move a part down, such as lowering your shoulders.

* RetroversionPelvic position in which the vertical plane through the anterior superior spines is posterior to the vertical plane through the pubic symphysis.

* AnteroversionPelvic position in which the vertical plane through the anterior superior spines is anterior to the vertical plane through the pubic symphysis.

* Pronation: movement of the forearm and hand that rotates the radius medially around its longitudinal axis so that the palm looks posteriorly.

* Supination: movement of the forearm and hand that rotates the radius laterally around its longitudinal axis so that the palm looks anteriorly.

 

 

 

 

 

* Inversion: movement of the sole of the foot towards the median plane. When the foot is fully inverted, it is also plantiflected.

* Eversion: movement of the sole of the foot away from the median plane. When the foot is fully everted, it is also dorsiflected.

 

 

 

* Dorsi-flexion (dorsal flexion): flexion movement in the ankle joint, as when walking uphill or lifting the toes.

* Planting-flexion (plantar flexion): Bends the foot or toes toward the plantar face when standing on the toes.